Tag Archives: Venus

Double Retrograde Discussion with Larry Pesavento

When Larry Pesavento interviewed me this morning, we had a chance to talk about the impact of the recent double retrograde phenomenon.

We also took a look at the upcoming trends in the equities markets.

We even got in a bird’s eye view of the cryptocurrency markets.

Interview Recording

Here’s the entire interview, featuring the double retrograde impact and a whole lot more. It was broadcast earlier today on tfnn.com internet TV:

Double Retrograde Effect

The first of the trading charts that we shared with Larry during our conversation this morning dealt specifically with the double retrograde alignment. That’s what has coincided so sharply with the market action overall.

Solstice Energies

As we’ve noted repeatedly during the past few weeks, the Winter Solstice has the potential for triggering a short-term rally in stock prices.

Astro-Cycle Projection Dates

We found further confirmation for short-term swing action to the upside when we looked at this astro-cycle trading chart.

Solar Eclipse Webinar

We think that the solar eclipse coming up on January 5 is going to have an unexpectedly strong effect on the globe as a whole. That’s why I’m doing a special free webinar on the eclipse on December 28.

CLICK HERE to register for this free event:

 

Come join the fun!

Ominous Solstice Signals Challenges

Today marks a particularly ominous solstice.

In and of itself, of course, a solstice isn’t especially threatening. It’s not even very rare.

The summer solstice is one of two dates in the annual solar cycle when the Sun seems to stand still.

In the Northern Hemisphere it marks the first day of Summer.

As the “longest day of the year” it provides the greatest amount of daylight compared to the hours of darkness in this 24-hour period.

It’s a time for ritual and celebration, including a gathering at Stonehenge.

But in the Southern Hemisphere it’s the beginning of Winter.

Gann Watched The Solstice Carefully

For traders, especially for those who follow in the footsteps of W. D. Gann, the solstice marks a critical turning point in the annual progress of the markets.

It’s a time when there’s a high likelihood of trend reversals.

That means it can bring big trading opportunities.

And, as I’ve noted in a previous blog post, W. D. Gann gave it special attention each year.

An Ominous Solstice Event

From an astrological perspective, however, not all solstices are created equal.

They are all important turning points, of course. But in each case, we can examine the planetary impact of the solar alignment at the time of the solstice.

And that’s where we start to find challenges associated with this current solstice.

It does appear to be an ominous solstice, indeed.

Consider the position of the solstice itself.

By definition, it’s on the cardinal axis, at 0 degrees Aries and its fourth-harmonic equivalents.

But today’s solstice does more than that.

It also activates Venus in the eighth harmonic.

And even more importantly, it’s exactly aligned with the transiting Saturn/Hades midpoint.

Ominous Solstice 06212017 90-Degree Dial
The ominous Solstice for June 2017 on the 90-degree dial shows the activation of Venus and the Saturn/Hades midpoint.

That alignment alone is enough to make this an ominous solstice.

Just note what Alfred Witte had to say about the Saturn/Hades combination in his classic book on Rules for Planetary Pictures. He said it indicated:

“Poverty. Hard luck. To be separated through accidents, or unemployment. Melancholy. Trouble. Sadness. The alien. Refugees. Serious obstacles. Severe sickness or unemployment of long duration. Enemies. Enmity. Serious loss. Prison. Epidemics. Illness restrictions. Ugly habits. Matters that are either put off or never finished. To be impoverished by sickness. Isolation through sickness. Damages to the crops.”

There’s certainly not much cause for optimism in that description!

But we can refine our understanding of what we can expect in the aftermath of this ominous solstice if we consider each of the activations of that Saturn/Hades midpoint.

Venus Implications

The eighth-harmonic Venus trigger of the Saturn/Hades midpoint at the time of the solstice is an indication of poverty, filth, illicit unions, and dirty alliances. It’s associated with premature births, miscarriages, and serious abdominal diseases. Personal interactions connected with this planetary picture can range from ineffective service to extremely unpleasant associations with vulgar or unscrupulous people.

The Aries Point Trigger

With the alignment of the Saturn/Hades midpoint along the cardinal axis of the zodiac, there’s an emphasis on the likelihood of plagues, epidemics and famine in the months following the solstice. The resulting loss of life can be so devastating that it could become difficult to identify the dead. Strangers, fugitives and refugees are in the spotlight. There’s a big potential for massive job layoffs and an increase in unemployment.

The Role of the Sun

The solar activation of the Saturn/Hades midpoint signals the potential for physical frailty and illness for prominent men in key positions. There’s also the possibility for grief and losses through rejection, a sudden loss of position, or arrest and imprisonment.

In the aggregate, then, this ominous solstice represents the potential for a major challenge to established political structures, to community consciousness, and to the general welfare of the world’s populations.

If we want to cling to high-minded ideas and lofty ideals in an effort to articulate a new state of consciousness in social structures and geopolitical opportunities, we need to prepare ourselves.

This ominous solstice is stern reminder of the serious work that lies ahead.

 

 

Transneptunian Zodiac Connections

Transneptunian zodiac connections don’t get a lot of attention.

We use the transneptunian planets in our market forecasting work.

We turn to them as we uncover active planetary price lines in trading charts.

But transneptunian factors are rarely understood.

Even some highly-experienced professional astrologers don’t give them much recognition.

And almost nobody understands their connection to the signs of the zodiac.

What’s A Transnepstunian Planet, Anyway?

The transneptunian planets were postulated before they were discovered.

They were first theorized by the German astrologer Alfred Witte. It was just after World War I.

Witte was a brilliant astrologer and mathematician.

He intimately understood connections between planetary cycles and real-world events.

But Witte saw  something missing.

Some events happened without obvious astrological correlations.

That seemed especially true in war.

Hence Witte’s flash of inspiration.

Alfred Witte’s Big Idea

He concluded that there must be more planets orbiting the Sun.

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune had companions.

They just hadn’t been discovered yet.

But these hypothetical planets were making their influence felt. They were triggering real events.

Their effects were mainly evident in combination with other planetary influences.

So Witte went to work. He calculated their apparent orbits. He added them to his horoscopes.

And they worked.

The transneptunian factors that Witte and his students theorized really helped explain events.

They helped in individual horoscopes. But they were really powerful in mundane charts. Those are horoscopes associated with nations and global events.

Transneptunians are potent factors in financial astrology.

And since Witte’s day – about 100 years later – we found Kuiper Belt objects.

They’re in the zone where Witte predicted we’d find the transneptunians.

The Transneptunian Zodiac Connection

But their connection to signs of the zodiac is obscure.

That’s why I was intrigued when one of my students asked me about that connection.

She’s an astro-trader, refining her approach to the markets.

Our regular telephone sessions review her progress.

And she asked the question.

“How do transneptunians relate to the signs of the zodiac?”

I decided to record my answer.

It took me 45 minutes. But it’s the most direct and concise discussion you’ll find anywhere.

Hear It For Yourself

Transneptunian Zodiac
Transneptunian Zodiac Connections

That’s why I decided to make that recording available.

It’s been edited slightly. The audio quality has been cleaned up a little.

But in the audio, you’ll get the facts. You’ll hear details and nuances about transneptunian connects that aren’t available elsewhere.

And best of all, it’s available now as an instant MP3 download.

You’ll find details HERE.

The Donald Trump Election and W. D. Gann

It’s just been 24 days since the Donald Trump election as president of the United States.

We still haven’t completely assimilated its consequences.

The Trump election surprised the political pundits, to say the least.

We weren’t 100 percent certain about the outcome prior to election day on November 8th.

But we certainly weren’t as surprised by the Trump election as many of the television talking heads seemed to be.

After all, following the lead of top mundane astrologer Nick Campion, we had examined the transits to the natal horoscopes of the presidential candidates on inauguration day.

Trump Election Results Show At The Inauguration

Nick says that since the exact time of the new president taking office is specified by law, the inauguration chart, set for noon on January 20, 2017, is the best guide to an election’s outcome.

The transits to Hillary Clinton’s natal chart on that date aren’t particularly horrible. They aren’t particularly outstanding, either.

Trump election inauguration
The ultimate outcome of the Trump election is shown on Inauguration Day.

But Donald J. Trump’s transits are pretty spectacular.

In fact, they clearly define the expectation for a Trump election.

At the time of the Oath of Office, Venus will be in a 150-degree quincunx to Donald Trump’s natal Jupiter. That signals a particularly joyful time, although it may lack fulfillment at some level.

Venus will also be in opposition to Trump’s natal conjunction of the transneptunian factors Cupido and Apollon. This suggests a time of harmonious union with many people, with an emphasis on oratory and vocal skill.

Perhaps most importantly, however, transiting Jupiter will be trine Donald Trump’s natal Sun.

Alfred Witte describes the Sun/Jupiter combination as signifying “the cheerful man” or “fortunate rich man”.

That pretty much nails the outcome of the Trump election.

The Stock Market Reaction To The Trump Election

As the news of the Donald Trump election began to break in the early morning hours of November 9, stock market futures began to plunge. But that nose-dive didn’t last long.

Rally After Trump Election
The market rally after the Trump election continued for weeks before topping out at the New Moon.

By the time the markets officially opened at 9:30 Wednesday morning, stocks had bounced back.

They started a spectacular rally that went on for weeks.

In fact, it lasted until the next New Moon, a stressful event with an impact both in and out of the markets.

Again, this was a surprising development for many pundits, who had anticipated a market crash in the event of a Trump election.

But students of W. D. Gann weren’t surprised.

Gann’s Comments Applied To The Trump Election

In his 1923 book Truth of the Stock Tape, W. D. Gann specifically addressed the question of “After-Election Rallies” in the stock market.

“When any important election, either presidential or otherwise, take place,” Gann wrote, “and the market has pretty well discounted it, but the general public through the country figure that the event is favorable, they, of course, send in buying orders the next day after election, and stocks are strong until this demand is satisfied. It will always pay you to wait two or three days after election and see whether the market continues to move in the same direction after election as it did before.”

To add perspective current to his day, Gann mentioned the 1912 election of Woodrow Wilson. (As a side note, there’s an interesting comparison of the Trump election with that of Wilson by Bloomberg commentator Jonathan Bernstein.)

“Stocks were strong the first day after Wilson was elected the first time,” W. D. Gann noted, “but the decline started promptly after public buying orders had been filled. Always be careful of buying on top of after-election rallies. In the same way, if stocks open off and decline the first two or three days after election, be careful about selling them, as it may be only the public selling because they are scared and the insiders may support the market and start an advance.”

Good advice!

Election Violence & Uranus-Admetos

Is there election violence just ahead?

The planetary aspects at the U.S. elections on November 8 are disturbing, to say the least.

They certainly suggest the possibility of election violence. It could be either at the polls themselves or in the aftermath of the vote count.

The Saturn-Vulcanus waxing sesquiquadrate contributes to a hyper-vigilant attitude. It’s a “do or die” dynamic that’s essentially looking for trouble. It stays on guard against imagined offences.

The Mars-Admetos waning trine adds to the tension. It signals an urge to take aggressive action against immovable obstacles. There’s a strong possibility that “get out the vote” forces could confront “suppress the vote” resistance.

Election Violence From A Pleasant Source?

And then there’s the conjunction of Venus with the transneptunian Cupido.

It’s just after the Election Day opening bell on the New York Stock Exchange.

Now don’t get me wrong.

Venus and Cupido are two of the good guys in astrology.

Venus is all about love, harmony, money, the arts, and beauty. It’s the feminine mystique personified.

Cupido is connected with community, family connections, and the sharing of common cultural heritage.

So when Venus and Cupido get together it’s typically good. We normally expect social harmony, pleasant connections, and marital bliss.

Venus Cupido S&P High
The Venus-Cupido conjunction marked a trading top for the S&P 500 in December, 2014.

But as this chart for the S&P 500 in 2014 shows, we sometimes get something else.

The Venus-Cupido conjunction coincides with trading tops about 60 percent of the time.

But this time the two planets meet, on Tuesday, November 8, we may get even more negative results.

Venus Cupido signals election violence
The Venus-Cupido conjunction on November 8, 2016 won’t be taking place in isolation. It may even trigger election violence.

This 90-degree dial for the Venus-Cupido conjunction shows the meeting of the two planets at 25º 41′ Sagittarius.

But what’s interesting is not just the connection between those two beneficial planets.

It’s the fact that they trigger the Uranus-Admetos midpoint.

That’s pretty ominous.

This midpoint activation signals shocking social convulsions. We could see wanton destruction, murders, earthquakes, and yes, even election violence.

At the very least, we can expect sudden breakups of trusted associations.

Individuals and factions will be excluded.

They’ll need to learn how to go it on their own.

They may have wounds that take a very long time to heal.

It’s not a pretty picture.

Election Violence and the Markets

Don’t forget. The markets can react to social and political news in dramatic ways.

Election violence could amplify the November Meltdown in equities.

That’s exactly why I hosted a special webinar earlier today.

November Meltdown Webinar
We discussed the prospects for election violence during the live webinar on November 5, 2016.

During that session we took an-depth look at the current planetary stress.

We explored the roots of the election stress.

We checked the horoscopes for Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, and James Comey.

And we shared solid strategies for profiting in these tense times.

The webinar recording is well worth downloading.

Election Violence in 1876

The election campaign this year has certainly been vicious.

But it’s not the only time that an election got nasty.

1876 election violence
Election violence was rampant in the aftermath of voting in 1876.

The prize for election violence goes to 1876.

Voters went to the polls on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of America’s most contentious and controversial contests.

The 1876 results are among the most disputed ever. But it’s certain that Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio’s Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote.

Hayes got 4,034,311 votes. Tilden got 4,288,546.

After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes. Hayes got 165.

But 20 votes were left unresolved. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute in four states.

In Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state.

In Oregon one elector was replaced. He had been declared illegal for being an “elected or appointed official”.

Ultimately, all three of Oregon’s votes were awarded to Hayes.

Hayes thus had a majority of one in the Electoral College.

The Democrats cried fraud. Tension and hostility swept the country.

Tilden supporters threatened that Hayes would never be inaugurated.

“Tilden or Blood” became the rallying cry. In Columbus, Ohio, a shot was fired at Governor Hayes’s residence as he sat down to dinner. Supporters marched to his home, calling for the “president”.

Hayes tried to calm the crowd. “It is impossible,” he said, “at so early a time, to obtain the result.”

As incidents of election violence surged, President Grant took action. He strengthened the military force in and around Washington.

 

A look at the h1876-tildenhayesoroscope for the disputed election of 1876 is revealing.

Saturn activates the Mercury-Kronos midpoint, so authoritative communications were in short supply.

With the Venus/Chiron mipoint also getting triggered, harmony and cooperation were difficult to establish.

But most important of all, Saturn also activated the Uranus-Admetos midpoint at the 1876 election. That’s the same combination being triggered now, setting the stage for stress and tension, and possibly even some election violence.

Planetary Pairs in the Markets

Planetary pairs are one of the keys to effective analysis in astro-trading.

What are planetary pairs?

Basically they’re just two different planets that are used in combination to determine the characteristics of specific market action.

Different planetary pairs can be used with different stocks.

Ideally the planets involved will not only connect with the trading action, but will also relate in some way with the characteristics of the company as well.

But even if you’ve managed to select a good pair, it may not last.

Sometimes the trading energy for a particular stock will shift, and the planetary pairs will no longer describe the trading action accurately.

When that happens it’s up to us as astro-traders to examine other potential combinations of planetary pairs. We begin the search for what’s working now.

Picking The Best Planetary Pairs For Trading

Sometimes that search can be pretty frustrating.

We may look through dozens of planetary pairs, seeking in vain for the precise combination that fits the behavior of the stock we want to trade.

At other times the process of filtering through potential planetary pairs takes almost no time at all.

With a flash of inspiration, the perfect combination seems to appear magically!

But what is it that makes the perfect combination?

Fast and Slow

Ideally, you’re looking for one fast-moving planet and one slower-moving planet.

The faster planet will often help define trading trends, while its slower-moving companion helps structure key zones of support and resistance.

And fast and slow are always comparative.

Mercury is faster than Jupiter, but Jupiter is faster than Pluto.

Generally speaking, though, when you pick a fast planet you’ll be selecting the Sun or the Moon, or Mercury, Venus, or Mars.

For slower-moving planets you’ve got lots of options.

Transneptunians As Slow Planets

The Transneptunian Factors are particularly slow moving, which can make them extremely useful in constructing planetary pairs for market analysis.
TNP Transitions Planetary Pairs

We discussed this briefly in our recent webinar on the current Admetos action. Our focus was “The Hidden Transneptunian Transition Just Ahead” – the session provided an in-depth look at some critical factors other financial astrologers have overlooked. The webinar recording is worth downloading and reviewing in detail.

A Free Resource From TradersWorld

TW63

As a result of some focused research on the importance of planetary pairs, I wrote an article which has recently been published in Issue #63 of TradersWorld magazine. It takes a detailed look at the importance of this kind of planetary calculation, and why it’s so critical for astro-traders to include it in their work.

Thanks to the generosity of Larry Jacobs, the editor of TradersWorld, you can get this information for free.

Not just the article I wrote, but the complete Issue #63 in its entirety!

It amounts to 161 pages of great information on trading and market analysis – you’ll find it enormously useful if you want to expand your personal effectiveness as an astro-trader.

Just CLICK HERE to get your pdf download of the entire issue as an instant delivery.

 

 

Radio Silence – NASA or NASDAQ?

NASA always does a great job of keeping us up to speed on the action in the solar system.

The charts and graphs the agency shares on its spaceweather.com website are enlightening.

The photos are spectacular.

And the stuff from NASA isn’t just about what’s going on in space.

It’s about the impact of solar system events on life here on Earth as well.

Funny thing about that.

It used to be that only astrologers thought that the action in space makes an impact on human affairs.

Astrologers used to get ridiculed for that crazy idea.

But now the astronomers who work with NASA, the guys and gals peering through the telescopes into the night sky, have figured it out as well!

Good for them!

NASA Shows Us The Solar Action

Of course the astronomers may or may not recognize the fact that they’re getting a little closer to astrology every day.

Either way, it’s important for us as astrologers – and as astro-traders, too – to pay attention to the information coming out of NASA.

Like this photograph the agency released earlier today:

 

NASA solar flare photo 20DEC2014
This NASA photograph shows the solar flare from a big sunspot eruption on December 20, 2014.

This is an image of sunspot AR2242 erupting at 00:27 UT on Saturday, December 20,

A Heliocentric-Uranian Blend?

If you were clocking things astrologically then, you might have noted that this took place just a few hours after heliocentric Venus entered Aquarius.

It was also just a few hours before an exact 120-degree alignment between heliocentric Mars and heliocentric Poseidon. (That’s for those of you who dare mix Uranian and heliocentric techniques!)

But as NASA knows, the real action was on the Sun – and on the Earth as well.

The eruption of sunspot AR2242 produced a massive X1.8-class solar flare. That’s the big plume of fire shooting out from the Sun at the lower-right corner of the photograph.

Feeling The Solar Impact

We’ve already felt the effects on Earth.

NASA reported that the solar flare produced an extremely high level of ultraviolet radiation which ionized a big chunk of the Earth’s upper atmosphere earlier today.

That atmospheric ionization blacked out high-frequency radio communications over Australia and much of the South Pacific when it hit.

But the effects may not stop with that period of radio silence. NASA says that there’s also the possibility that a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the same sunspot eruption could be on its way to Earth.

If that’s the case, and if the CME arrives in the next couple of days as NASA suggests, we could see more communications interference.

We could also see an impact on the markets. Key research by some of the pioneers in financial astrology revealed important correlations between sunspot cycles and the rhythms of the markets.

As astro-traders, then, we need to keep an eye on solar events like this one reported by NASA.

Even if we have a different perspective than the NASA astronomers!

Astro-Trading Silver at the Summer Solstice

When I was interviewed by Michael Yorba on his Traders Network radio show yesterday, we had a great chance to discuss this weekend’s Summer Solstice and it potential impact on the markets.

The Summer Solstice will arrive at 6:51 a.m. EDT on Saturday morning, June 21st.

This event is carrying some extra weight this year because of the recent activations of the 90-degree cardinal point at the beginning of Cancer by Venus and Mercury. These events have already shown their importance in moving the markets; the Summer Solstice is the Sun’s activation of that same 90-degree point in the cardinal axis. That’s just one of the reasons that W. D. Gann gave it so much attention.

To get an idea about the potential impact of the Summer Solstice on stock market trading, be sure to check out this chart for the historic effect on the S&P 500. As you can see, our back-testing of this index during this annual event gives us good reason to consider adding some short positions to the Financial Cycles Model Portfolio at this time.

But not all markets are likely to decline at the Summer Solstice. Take a look at what happened to Silver when this event took place last year:

Silver Summer Solstice 2013
Silver responded emphatically to the Summer Solstice in 2013, with the precious metal climbing by nearly 13% in the month of trading just after this key planetary event.

Needless to say, if you’re interested in trading precious metals, be sure to your homework thoroughly! Even though we got a big bounce in Silver at the Summer Solstice last year, and even though the Summer Solstice coming within three trading days of an isolated low in Silver about 76% of the time, this event only triggers a trend reversal to the upside about 29% of the time. So a rally in Silver (or in any other precious metals) is not a foregone conclusion following the Summer Solstice this year.

You’ll get more details about the Summer Solstice activation of the 90-degree cardinal point and its creation of a major zodiac pressure point for the markets in this recording of the complete 10-minute interview with Michael Yorba during yesterday’s show on the Traders Network:


click here to download or listen on your mobile device

By the way, during this interview I mentioned to Michael that I’m currently working on some new planetary cycle research to help fine-turn our understanding of the trading top that’s just ahead of us in the equities markets. This new report on “How To Time The Next Market Top” will be available in about a week; CLICK HERE if you’d like to get on the list for early-bird notification as soon as it’s available.

The Stock Market Trading Environment Feels The Effect As The Venus Translation Gets Underway

The big Cardinal Grand Cross hit its peak on April 22-23, giving us a real focal point in the Stock Market Collision Course we’ve been experiencing during the past few months.

But even though that powerful planetary alignment is behind us now, it’s still making its influence felt, thanks to some assistance from other planets.

Venus/Pluto Waxing Square and Stock Market Trading at the Full Moon
The intra-day trading action for the S&P 500 on Wednesday, May 14, 2014 reveals the sharp break from trading congestion that coincided with the Venus/Pluto waxing square, an event that begins a Venus translation of the powerful Cardinal Grand Cross that took place last month. Along with the Full Moon which came along just a couple of hours after the precise Venus/Pluto alignment, this event marked an important inflection point for stock market trading.

Right now, for example, transiting Venus is forming alignments with Pluto, Uranus, and Jupiter, reactivating the energy of the Cardinal Grand Cross from last month. Although Venus alignments with these three planets are not rare events by any stretch of the imagination, the combination of all these trigger points in rapid-fire sequence is really an unusual occurrence

As I’ve noted before in previous blog posts and elsewhere, this Venus translation of the Cardinal Grand Cross has the potential for signaling a trading top in the equities markets. Based on the trading chart on this page, showing the intra-day price action for the S&P throughout the trading day today, we may already be seeing the first phase of just such a trading top.

What seems more likely at this point, however, is a strong bounce upward from the trading lows established today, with a push toward higher prices in equities as we move into the Mars direct station on May 19, with consequences that may be more unpredictable than expected as we head for a big leg downward after that.

Either way, I think it’s appropriate to emphasize the incredible insights that we benefit from as astro-traders, getting glimpses of future astrological patterns, market dynamics, and geopoliitcal events beofe they had an opportunity to make their full influence felt.

 

Will Venus Help Define A Stock Market Top Next Week?

All the drama of the Stock Market Collision Course, the Cardinal Grand Cross, and the April Solar Eclipse is behind us now.

Or is it?

Astrological events and planetary patterns set up resonant fields that can have long-term effects on the markets, and those effects are often most visible when transiting planets trigger those resonant fields.

For example, for the past couple of months we’ve been watching the influence of the Grand Cross in Cardinal zodiac signs, with Jupiter, Uranus, Pluto and Zeus and the key factors. Their interaction has helped define some important areas of support and resistance, as this trading chart for the S&P illustrates:

That exact alignment was at its peak on April 21-23, and since then its effect has been substantially diminished. But during the week just ahead of us, transiting Venus will be setting off each of these planets in turn, effectively “translating” the Grand Cross alignment into the current trading environment.

We’re looking for this Venus action to bring some bullish energy to the market mix, which could help set the stage for a trading top around the time of the Mars Direct Station on May 19, followed by declining prices as we move into the closing days of May.